Nitrite production was also evaluated in the cellular supernatant by the Griess reaction

Nitrite production was also evaluated in the cellular supernatant by the Griess reaction. Cytokine profile investigated by flow cytometry A flow cytometry assay was performed to evaluate the IFN-, TNF- and IL-10-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequency in Rebeprazole sodium the treated and infected animals, 15 days Rebeprazole sodium after treatment. which were associated with low IL-4 and IL-10 Rebeprazole sodium production. In addition, a higher frequency of IFN- and TNF–producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells was found in these animals. The parasite load was evaluated in distinct organs, and results showed that the treatment using miltefosine, ICHQ or ICHQ/Mic induced significant reductions in organic parasitism in the treated and infected mice. A comparison between the treatments suggested that ICHQ/Mic was the most effective in inducing a highly polarized Th1-type response, as well as reducing the parasite load in significant levels in the treated and infected animals. Data obtained 15 days after treatment suggested maintenance of the immunological and parasitological responses. In conclusion, ICHQ/Mic could be considered in future studies for the treatment Rebeprazole sodium of visceral leishmaniasis. dans un modle murin. Dans la prsente tude, lICHQ/Mic a t test contre linfection par injection sous-cutane et ont re?u 45 jours aprs?lpreuve une solution saline ou ont t traites par voie sous-cutane avec des micelles vides, ICHQ ou ICHQ/Mic. De plus, les animaux ont t traits avec de la miltefosine par voie orale, comme contr?le mdicamenteux. La moiti des animaux ont t euthanasis 1 et 15 jours aprs le traitement, dans le but de mesurer deux critres dvaluation Vax2 aprs la thrapie, lorsque les paramtres parasitologiques et immunologiques ont t tudis. Les rsultats ont montr que le traitement par miltefosine, ICHQ ou ICHQ/Mic induisait des niveaux danticorps anti-parasite IFN-, IL-12, GM-CSF, nitrite et IgG2a significativement plus levs, associs de faibles productions dIL-4 et IL-10. De plus, une frquence plus leve de cellules T CD4+ et CD8+ produisant de lIFN- and TNF- a t trouve chez ces animaux. La charge parasitaire a t value dans des organes distincts et les rsultats ont montr que le traitement utilisant la miltefosine, ICHQ ou ICHQ/Mic induisait des rductions significatives du parasitisme des organes chez les souris traites et infectes. Une comparaison entre les traitements a suggr quICHQ/Mic tait le plus efficace pour induire une rponse de type Th1 polarise, ainsi que pour rduire la charge parasitaire des niveaux significatifs chez les animaux traits et infects. Les donnes obtenues 15 jours aprs le traitement suggrent le maintien des rponses immunologiques et parasitologiques. En conclusion, ICHQ/Mic pourrait tre envisag dans de futures tudes pour le traitement contre la leishmaniose viscrale. Introduction Leishmaniases are diseases caused by parasitic protozoa belonging to more than 20 different species [61]. Distinct clinical manifestations of this disease complex are found in infected mammalian hosts, ranging from self-curing cutaneous lesions to life-threatening visceral disease [60]. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by species in Asia and Africa, and by in the Mediterranean Basin, Middle East and the Americas. Acute disease, which is characterized by several symptoms, such as fever, anemia, weight loss and fatigue, can be fatal if left untreated [12, 28]. About 0.2C0.4 million VL cases occur each year, of which the majority are reported Rebeprazole sodium in India, where the disease is an important public health problem [52]. In the Americas, Brazil accounts for about 90% of the VL cases recorded annually [60]. Since it is often difficult to rapidly and precisely diagnose VL, and no human vaccines are available, treatment of VL should be improved. However, there are problems associated with the side effects caused by drugs, besides the prolonged hospitalization time, high cost, and/or the emergence of parasite resistance [20, 54]. Amphotericin B (AmpB) is a known antifungal agent that has shown effective antileishmanial activity against distinct species [5, 43, 45]. The mechanism of action of the drug was related to binding.