Alcohol induces acute liver injury, so this finding was expected

Alcohol induces acute liver injury, so this finding was expected. elevated health-related symptoms primarily attributable to anxiety, and early signs of liver disease were attributable to AUD. = 22) was not associated with adolescent or young adulthood obesity. In a prospective study of female children with sexual abuse (= 84) and a comparison sample (= 102), those with a sexual abuse history showed a more rapid increase in BMI during adolescence and a higher obesity rate in young adulthood (Noll, Zeller, Tricket, & Putnam, 2007). Among over 9,000 children followed to middle adulthood (Thomas et al., 2008), physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, predicted increased BMI and higher rates of obesity in middle adulthood. In the latter study, child abuse did not predict type 2 diabetes in middle adulthood. Comorbid obesity, high blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, increased blood glucose, and diabetes mellitus have been termed metabolic syndrome (Steinberger et al., 2009). Given a relationship between child abuse and obesity, one might expect that child abuse would predict elevations in other metabolic syndrome indicators. This RO-9187 possibility has not been studied. Stressors have been found to induce changes in immune functioning, and immune system indicators may be relevant to understanding child abuse and health. In the laboratory, immunoglobulin increases have been demonstrated in response to RO-9187 acute stressors (Endresen et al., 1991). Immunoglobulin increases have also been observed in response to natural stressors. In young adults, school exams predicted increases in plasma immunoglobulins IgM, IgG, and IgA (Glaser, Mehl, Penn, & Speicher, 1986). A study comparing 14 girls with sexual abuse and 13 control girls (De RO-9187 Bellis, Burke, Trickett, & Putnam, 1996) did not observe significant group differences on plasma antinuclear antibody titers. Immunoglobulin levels have not been previously studied in association with child abuse. While individuals with child abuse have not been reported to have diagnosed FGF1 medical diseases in adolescence and young adulthood, studies in later adulthood have noted an association between child abuse and some specific medical disease outcomes. Adults with child maltreatment histories have been reported to show elevated rates of liver disease, lung cancer and heart disease (Dong, Dube, Felitti, Giles, & Anda, 2003; Dong et al., 2004; Brown et al., 2006). These medical diseases may be an indirect result of risky health behaviors, particularly substance use disorders. Childhood abuse has been found to be associated with or to predict adolescent substance use disorders. Among 3,559 students in grades 7 through 12, Hamburger, Leeb, and Swahn (2008) found that sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing violence were associated with increased preteen alcohol use. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (= 12,748), Shin, Edwards, and Heeren (2009) found physical abuse and sexual abuse were associated with binge drinking. In a subset of the subjects described here, sexual abuse, RO-9187 physical abuse, and other stressors were more common among adolescents with AUD than among control adolescents (Clark, Lesnick, & Hegedus, 1997a). Physical or sexual abuse accelerated the onset of AUD and accounted for the relationship between AUD and major depressive disorder (Clark, De Bellis, Lynch, Cornelius, & Martin, 2003). The adverse health consequences associated with AUD, reflected by organ pathology and disease history, have been more systematically studied in adults than in adolescents. In adults, abnormalities found to be caused by chronic alcohol dependence include elevated liver injury indices (Allen, Fertig, Litten, Sillanaukee, & Anton, 1997), elevated immunoglobulins (Mili, Flanders, Boring, Annest, & DeStefano, 1992), elevated erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV) (Seppa, Sillanaukee & Koivula, 1992), and decreased electrolytes, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and potassium (Elisaf, Bairaktari, Kalaizidia, & Siamopoulos, 1998). The medical records of 417 adolescents with substance use disorders and 2082 demographically matched subjects, those with substance use disorders had more abdominal pain, sleep disorders, and.